The vast majority of pregnancies go normally with no major issues. However, some pregnant women may have problems that may affect their health, the health of their unborn child, or both.

Pregnancy difficulties may sometimes be brought on by illnesses or ailments the woman had before to being pregnant. Several issues might arise during delivery.

Even with problems, prenatal care and early discovery may minimize any further danger to you and your unborn child.

Some of the Commonest Pregnancy-related Health Conditions :-

  • Gestational diabetes 
  • High blood pressure
  • Preeclampsia & Eclampsia
  • Premature delivery, 
  • Stillbirth, or a miscarriage

Are You at risk?

Talk to your doctor before getting pregnant if you have a long-term health condition. Your doctor might want to keep an eye on your pregnancy.

Some health problems that can cause problems during pregnancy are:

  • Diabetes 
  • Cancer
  • infections 
  • High blood pressure
  • Sexually transmitted diseases, like HIV
  • Kidney problems
  • Epilepsy 
  • Anemias

Other things that might make you more likely to have health problems are 

  • Being pregnant at 35 or older,
  • Being pregnant at a young age, 
  • Eating disorders like anorexia.
  • Smoking cigarettes 
  • Using illegal drugs 
  • Drinking alcohol
  • History of previous miscarriage or preterm birth 
  • Having twins or triplets.
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pregnancy-related health risks

What are the most common problems that can come up during pregnancy or labor?

Sometimes it’s hard to tell the difference between the normal signs of pregnancy and the signs of problems. Even though many pregnancy problems are mild and don’t get worse, you should always talk to your doctor if you have any worries. Most pregnancy problems can be dealt with if they are treated quickly.

These are the most common problems that women have while they are pregnant:

High Blood pressure 

High blood pressure happens when the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the organs and placenta get narrower. Many other problems, like preeclampsia, are more likely to happen if you have high blood pressure. 

It makes it more likely that you will give birth before your due date. It also makes it more likely that your baby will be small. During pregnancy, it’s important to take medicine to keep your blood pressure in check.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes i.e. diabetes during pregnancy, happens when your body isn’t able to handle sugars well. This makes the blood sugar levels higher than they should be. Some women will have to change what they eat to help keep their blood sugar levels in check. Some people may need insulin to keep their blood sugar levels in check. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born.

Preeclampsia

Toxemia is another name for preeclampsia. It happens after the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and can cause high blood pressure and problems with the kidneys. To stop the disease from getting worse, preeclampsia is usually treated by having the baby and placenta taken out. Your doctor will talk to you about the risks and benefits of when you give birth. If you are 37 to 40 weeks pregnant, your doctor may put you into labor.

If it’s too early to have the baby, your doctor will have to keep a close eye on you and the baby. If you aren’t full term yet, they may give you medicine to help lower your blood pressure and help the baby grow. You might have to stay in the hospital for care and monitoring.

Preterm labor

When you go into labor before week 37, this is called preterm labor. This happens before your baby’s organs, like the lungs and brain, are fully formed. There are some medicines that can stop labor. Doctors usually tell pregnant women to stay in bed to keep the baby from coming too soon.

Miscarriage

When a pregnancy ends before 20 weeks, this is called a miscarriage. 20% of healthy women’s pregnancies end in a miscarriage. This can happen even before the woman knows she is pregnant. Most of the time, a miscarriage can’t be stopped.

A stillbirth is the loss of a pregnancy after the 20th week. Often, no one knows why this is happening. Some things that have been linked to stillbirths are:

  • Placenta related issues
  • Problems with the mother’s health that don’t go away.
  • Infections

Anemia

If you have anemia, your body doesn’t have as many red blood cells as it should. If you have anemia, you may feel more tired and weak than usual, and your skin may be pale. Anemia can be caused by many things, and your doctor will need to treat the real cause. Most cases of anemia are caused by a lack of iron or folic acid, so taking iron and folic acid supplements may help.

Infections: 

A pregnancy can be complicated by a number of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Both the mother and the baby can be hurt by infections, so it’s important to get help right away. Some examples include:

  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Bacterial vaginosis
  • cytomegalovirus 
  • group B Streptococcus
  •  hepatitis B virus, which can be passed to your baby during birth

Proper and frequent handwashing can prevent some infections

Vaccinations can protect you from others, like the hepatitis B virus and the flu.

Problems That Can arise during labor

There can also be problems during labor and delivery. If something goes wrong during labor, your doctor may need to change how the delivery goes.

Baby in breech Position

When a baby’s feet are ready to come out before their head, this is called breech position. This happens in about 4% of full-term births.

Most babies who are born this way are fine. If your baby shows signs of distress or is too big to pass through the birth canal safely, your doctor will tell you not to have a vaginal birth. If your doctor finds out a few weeks before delivery that your baby is in the breech position, they might try to move the baby. Most doctors recommend a cesarean delivery if the baby is still in the breech position when labor starts.

Placenta previa

When a woman has placenta previa, the placenta is covering the cervix. If this is the case, doctors will usually do a cesarean delivery.

Low weight at birth

Most babies are born with low birth weight because their mothers didn’t eat well or used cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs while they were pregnant. Babies born with a low birth weight are more likely to:

Illnesses of the lungs

learning disabilities

heart problems going blind

After being born, the baby might have to stay in the hospital for a few months.

Get Medical Help 

If you are pregnant, don’t wait to call your doctor if something seems wrong. Call your doctor right away if any of the following happen to you:

  • bleeding from the vagina
  • swollen hands or face, 
  • pain in the stomach, 
  • fever, and 
  • Very bad headaches.
  • dizziness
  • Vomiting too much made it hard to see.

During the third trimester, you should also call your doctor if you think your baby is moving less than usual.

Prevention

Not every problem can be stopped. The steps below may help you have a healthy pregnancy and avoid having a high-risk one:

  • If you want to get pregnant, talk to a doctor first so they can help you get ready. For example, if you already have a health problem, your doctor may suggest that you change how you’re treated to get ready for your pregnancy.
  • Start antenatal class early. You Could Join An Online Antenatal Class Here
  • Eat a healthy diet with lots of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and fiber.
  • Take prenatal vitamins daily or as recommended by your doctor.
  • In general, the Mayo Clinic says that women who were at a healthy weight before pregnancy should gain between 25 and 35 pounds.
  • Cut down on your stress. You can lower your stress by listening to music and doing yoga
  • Go to all of your regular prenatal visits, even if a specialist is recommended.
  • Quit smoking if you smoke.
  • Avoid alcohol and illegal drugs.
  • Ask your doctor if you should keep taking the medicines you’re already taking or if you should stop.

References

https://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/delivery-complications#prevention