Hormonal Contraceptives

Hormonal contraceptives are made up of estrogen and progesterone, or only progesterone. They work to halt egg release from the ovaries, thin the uterine lining, or thicken the mucus in the cervix to assist prevent sperm from reaching the egg.

Contraceptive Implants:

This is a single, thin rod-shaped implant, usually placed beneath the skin of a woman’s upper arm. The progestin in the rod is released into the body over the course of three years.

If this contraceptive is placed during the first week of the menstrual cycle, protection starts within 24 hours of implantation.

The method of action consists of suppressing the LH surge, suppressing ovulation, producing thick and sparse cervical mucus to impede sperm entry, and inhibiting endometrial growth and development.

Advantages

  • Its efficiency lasts a long time, which is advantageous. 
  • There is no exogenous estrogen. 
  • Upon removal, the fertility quickly returns to its prior level. 
  • There is no negative impact on breast milk production. 
  • Implant complications are uncommon and don’t really differ between teenagers and adults.

Disadvantage:

  • For removal, a simple surgical operation is required. 
  • Inconsistent menstruation is frequent.
  • Less often seen negative effects include moodiness, soreness in the breasts, and headaches.
  •  Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) or a short-term course of low-dose combination oral contraceptives or estrogen may help with irregular bleeding.

Success Rate:

Overall, with correct insertion and use, pregnancy rates stay at 0.05 -0.1% for at least three years.

Contraceptive saves
Contraceptives your way

Injectable Contraceptives

To avoid becoming pregnant, a woman may receive progestin injections from her doctor every three months, this contraceptive can be injected into her arm or buttocks

.Advantages:

  • Decreased dysmenorrhea.
  • There is a reduction in the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer. 
  • Women who cannot or won’t use estrogen-containing products can use it because it doesn’t contain any estrogen. 
  • Mothers who are nursing their babies are likewise safe.

Disadvantages :

  • Menstrual cycle disruption leading to amenorrhea
  • It has the potential to prolong the return to fertility.
  • Weight gain, depression, and irregular menstruation may persist for up to a year following the last injection.

Success Rate:

Injectable contraceptives are a highly effective method of contraception. The failure rate in the first year of perfect use is 0.3 percent.

Combination oral contraceptives:

Also known as “the pill,”  are oral contraceptives that include both the progestin and estrogen hormones. A doctor has to prescribe it before you could use it. It is taken daily at the same time. Your doctor could suggest against using the pill if you smoke, are older than 35, have a history of blood clots or breast cancer.

Advantages:

  • It is very effective 
  • Reduces blood loss from menstruation and menstrual pains
  • Can protect against Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
  • It Could protect against ectopic pregnancy, benign breast condition, and endometrial cancer

Disadvantages:

  • Headaches, amenorrhea, breakthrough bleeding, breast soreness, and nausea are among of the common side effects. 
  • Oral contraceptives do not offer STD prevention. 
  • It must be taken daily, and 
  • irregular usage might raise the failure rate.

Success Rate:

Has over 99% success rate, with an average of 7 %  failure rate.

The Progestin-Only Pill

Unlike the combination pill, the progestin-only pill also known as the mini-pill contains only one hormone, progestin, rather than both estrogen and progestin. A doctor has to prescribed it. It is taken every day at the same time. It may be a viable choice for women who are unable to take estrogen.

Advantages 

  • Spares the use from the adverse effects of estrogen. 
  • Reduced menstrual pain, 
  • Reduced menstrual blood loss, and 
  •  Reduced symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. 
  • Fertility is promptly restored with the discontinuation of progestin-only oral contraceptives.

Disadvantages

  • Irregular bleeding
  • Less effective than the combined type (above)
  • adverse effects include nausea, breast tenderness, headache, and amenorrhea.
  • Does not protect from STDs.

Success Rate:

92-99% effective, The failure rate with typical use is predicted to be 7%.

Contraceptive Patch

This is a skin patch that is placed on the lower belly, buttocks, or upper torso (but not on the breasts). It causes the hormones progestin and estrogen to be released into the circulation.

 For three weeks, you apply a fresh patch once a week. You do not use a patch during the fourth week, allowing you to have a menstruation. 

Advantages:

  • It is very effective 
  • Reduces blood loss from menstruation and menstrual pains
  • It Could protect against ectopic pregnancy, benign breast condition, and endometrial cancer

Disadvantages:

  • Headaches, amenorrhea, breakthrough bleeding, breast soreness, and nausea are among of the common side effects. 
  • Contraceptive patch does not offer STD prevention. 
  • It must be changed weekly and 
  • irregular usage might raise the failure rate.

Success Rate:

Has over 99% success rate, with an average of 7 %  failure rate.

Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring

The ring secretes progestin and estrogen. You insert the ring into your vagina. You wear the ring for three weeks, remove it for the week of your period, and then replace it. The ring is used in the same manner as oral contraceptives, with three weeks of ring use (ring is remained in place for three weeks) followed by one week without to cause a withdrawal bleed.

Advantages 

  • Vaginal rings are extremely effective since they completely inhibit ovulation. 
  • The consistent release of hormone gives excellent cycle control. 
  • The rings are a highly efficient reversible birth control device.
  • After discontinuation, fertility returns quickly, 
  • Vaginal rings are a highly acceptable option for women and their partners.

Disadvantages

  • Headaches and vaginal discomfort or discharge are among the side effects. 
  • The ring may accidently fall out during sexual intercourse, and
  • Either the user or the partner may feel the ring.

Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices and Other Options

References

https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/index.htm

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/258507-overview#a5