Pregnancy starts with a fertilized egg and sooner  adheres to uterine lining. Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterine cavity.

It mostly occurs in the fallopian tube, and can also be called tubal pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy may also take place in the ovary, abdominal cavity, or lower section of the uterus (cervix).

Ectopic pregnancies don’t progress properly. A fertilized eggs can’t survive anywhere else outside the uterus. When ectopic pregnancy occurs, it can lead to life-threatening bleeding.

Symptoms

Initial symptoms may be absent.

Some women report missing periods, breast discomfort, and nausea.

Positive pregnancy test.

Signs and symptoms appear when the fertilized egg develops in the wrong area.

ectopic pregnancy
When a fertilized egg implants outside the uterine cavity, it is known as an ectopic pregnancy.

Here are the early warning signs

Light vaginal bleeding and pelvic discomfort are common symptoms.

If your fallopian tube leaks, you may experience shoulder pain or need to poop. 

Other More Serious Symptoms

  • When a fertilized egg grows in the fallopian tube, to will lead to the rupture of the tube. This will cause bleeding into the  abdominal. 
  • There will be lightheadedness, fainting, and shock.
  • Vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain
  • fainting spells
  • Shoulder pain

Causes

A tubal pregnancy is the most frequent kind of ectopic pregnancy and occurs when a fertilized egg becomes caught in the fallopian tube on its journey to the uterus. Hormonal imbalances or improper egg development may also contribute.

Risk Factors 

Previous ectopic. If you’ve had one, you’re more likely to have another.

Inflammation/infection. STDs like gonorrhea or chlamydia may inflame the tubes and other organs, increasing the chance

IVF. Some data shows that IVF or comparable therapies increase the risk also. Infertility itself increases risk.

Intubation. Fallopian tube surgery may raises the chance.

Contraception choice. IUCDs seldom cause pregnancy. With an IUCD, pregnancy is more likely to be ectopic. Tubal ligation, sometimes known as “tying your tubes,” boosts your risk if you get pregnant following the treatment.

Smoking. Cigarette smoking before pregnancy might cause ectopic pregnancies. Smoking increases risk.

Complications

Ectopic pregnancy may cause fallopian tube rupture. A burst tube may cause life-threatening bleeding.

Prevention

You can’t avoid an ectopic pregnancy, but you can reduce your risk.

Limiting sexual partners and wearing a condom may prevent STDs and pelvic inflammatory illness.

Ceasing to Smoke. Quit before trying to conceive.

How it is Diagnosed

A pelvic exam

Pregnancy test

  • The HCG blood test confirms pregnancy. Pregnancy boosts this hormone. This blood test may be repeated every few days until five to six weeks following conception, when an ultrasound may confirm or rule out an ectopic pregnancy.

Ultrasound

  • A transvaginal ultrasound helps your doctor locate your pregnancy. 
  • An abdominal ultrasound may confirm pregnancy or check for internal bleeding.

Others

A complete blood count will screen for anemia and blood loss. Your doctor may check your blood type if you have an ectopic pregnancy and require a transfusion.

Treatment options: 

Depending on symptoms and when the ectopic pregnancy is detected, 

  • medication,
  •  laparoscopic surgery, or 
  • abdominal surgery may be used.

Medication

Early ectopic pregnancies without unstable bleeding are treated with methotrexate, which slows cell development and dissolves cells. Injectable medicine.
Before treatment is commenced, ectopic pregnancy must be diagnosed.

Your doctor will prescribe another HCG test after the injection to evaluate whether extra medicine is needed.

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopic salpingostomy and salpingectomy cure ectopic pregnancies. A tiny incision is made near or in the navel. Your doctor uses a laparoscope to see the tubal region.

Salpingostomy removes the ectopic pregnancy and leaves the tube to recover. Salpingectomy removes the ectopic pregnancy and the tube.

Procedure varies on quantity of bleeding, damage, and tube rupture. Your second fallopian tube’s health also matters.

Emergency Surgery 

Heavy bleeding from an ectopic pregnancy may need immediate surgery. Laparoscopic or abdominal incision (laparotomy). Fallopian tube preservation is possible. A burst tube is usually removed.

Required Support & coping with Ectopic Pregnancy

Even a short-term pregnancy loss is painful. Acknowledge the loss and mourn. Feel your sentiments and express them.

Partner, family, and friends can help. You might also consult a support group, bereavement counselor, or other mental health professional.

Many women with ectopic pregnancies have subsequent healthy pregnancies. Fallopian tubes are generally two. If one tube is injured or ruptured, the other tube can still enough for normal conception.

IVF may be possible if both fallopian tubes are damaged or removed. With IVF, Fertilized eggs are placed into the uterus.

You’re more likely to have another ectopic pregnancy if you’ve had one. To become pregnant again, visit your doctor periodically. All ectopic pregnancy patients should have early blood testing. Blood tests and ultrasounds may detect another ectopic pregnancy.

References:

https://www.webmd.com/baby/pregnancy-ectopic-pregnancy#2

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ectopic-pregnancy/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20372093